Different types of capacitor available in the market
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Different types of capacitor available in the market

A capacitor is a passive device used to store electric charges within an electric field. Capacitors are made using materials like glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, cellulose, porcelain, Mylar, Teflon, and mica. If too much energy is stored within a capacitor, it can be dangerous and lead to electrical burns or heart fibrillation.

Some capacitors can retain the power even after it is removed from the circuit which makes it lethal. Apart from damage to one's health, the device or equipment will also get damaged. This occurs when the capacitor is affected by voltage change or when it becomes old.

Different types of capacitors available:

Polarized capacitor:

These capacitors have separate wires for positive and negative polarities. Polarized capacitors are divided into two, namely Electrolytic capacitors like Aluminum electrolytic capacitor, Tantalum electrolytic capacitor, and Niobium electrolytic capacitor and Super capacitors like Double-layer capacitor, Pseudo capacitor, and Hybrid capacitor. Electrolytic Capacitors have higher capacitance-voltage, a larger anode surface, and a thin dielectric oxide layer.

Supercapacitor is also called an Ultra Capacitor. Super capacitors have high capacitance value, faster storage, and charge delivery, and can hold more charge and discharge cycles. They are used for memory backup, regenerative braking in cars, buses, trains, elevators, and cranes.

Electrolytic capacitor:

These capacitors use electrolytes to achieve larger capacitance. These electrolytes come in liquid or gel form with a higher concentration of ions. An aluminum electrolytic capacitor is the most common type. Others include Tantalum electrolytic capacitor and Niobium electrolytic capacitor.

Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are found in applications like power supplies, computer motherboards, and many domestic appliances. Ensure that these capacitors are used only in DC circuits as they are polarized capacitors.

Non-polarized capacitor:

Unlike a polarized capacity, these capacitors do not have specific positive or negative polarities. Ceramic capacitors, silver mica capacitors, polyester capacitors, polystyrene capacitors, polycarbonate capacitors, Teflon capacitors, and glass capacitors are an example of non-polarized capacitors. While buying a capacitor, consider its operating temperature, temperature coefficient, and working range in accordance with its usage.

Ceramic capacitor:

Ceramic capacitors use ceramic material as the dielectric as they are good insulators. Thanks to their small size and low maximum rated voltage, they are widely used. They are non-polarized capacitors and can safely connect to an AC source.

Ceramic capacitors are mostly used in modern electronics and are called ceramic multilayer chip capacitors (MLCC) and ceramic disc capacitors. They use surface-mounted technology and can withstand high voltages. Small-form SMD is used in printed circuit boards, general-purpose capacitors, DC-DC converters, brush DC motors, and much more.

Film capacitor:

For the dielectric, film capacitors use thin plastic films which can either be metalized or left untreated which depends on the property of the capacitor. They are highly stable with low induction and low cost. Some examples of film capacitors are polyester film, metalized film, polypropylene film, PTFE film, and polystyrene film capacitors. PTFE film capacitors are used in aerospace and military technology as they are heat-resistant.

On the other hand, metalized polyester film capacitors are used in applications or devices that require continuous stability. These capacitors are suitable for AC signal and power use as their aging process is slower in comparison to electrolytic capacitors and have a longer shelf life and service life.

Mica capacitor:

Mica capacitors are those capacitors that use mica as their dielectric. Mica is a natural mineral that can be split into extremely thin elastic plates. There are two types of mica capacitors- clamped mica capacitor and silver mica capacitor. The former one is outdated while the latter one is widely used at high frequency as they are low-loss capacitors and their value does not change much over time.

Plus, mica capacitors are extremely stable may it be electrically, chemically, or mechanically. They are mainly used in power RF circuits, filters, and oscillator circuits as mica capacitors are highly stable.

Polyester capacitor:

These capacitors have metal plates with polyester film between them or a metalized film is deposited on the insulator. Thanks to their high-temperature coefficient and isolation resistance, they are apt for capacitors for coupling and storage applications.

They have high capacitance per unit volume and can fit into any small capacitor. Polyester capacitors are used in high-frequency circuits and audio and oscillator circuits.

Some of the best Electric capacitor and Dielectric capacitors:

ProductTypeVoltage
Schneider 10kVAr 440V Heavy Duty Low Voltage Capacitor, MEHVBHDY100A44Heavy Duty440 V
Schneider 20.6kVAr 525V Heavy Duty Detuned Filter Application Capacitor, MEHVCHDY206A52Heavy Duty525 V
ABB B43586-S3468-Q3 Electrolytic DC Capacitor, 64410539--
Epcos 6x41.5µF 15kVAr Three Phase EHDLL SquareCap Capacitor, B32455L5015A 11440 V-
Siemens 4RB1 15-18kVAr 480V SHD Phase CapacitorHeavy Duty480 V
Havells 20 kW-50 kW 525V AC UHDXL Delta Connection Ultra Heavy Duty APP Capacitor, QHQAMFBHeavy Duty525 V
Havells 72.18A 60 kW 480V AC Delta Connection Champion Double dielectric Super Heavy Duty, QHSTMD5060X0Heavy Duty480 V
Schneider 25kVAr 525V Gas Filled Heavy Duty Detuned Filter Application Capacitor, MEHVCGSF250A52Heavy Duty525 V

Conclusion:

Buy capacitors after carefully cross-checking with different brands as there are numerous brands that produce low-quality capacitors. Moglix offers high-quality capacitors from all the leading brands such Schneider, Havells, Siemens, Epcos and more. These high performance capacitors are best suited for heavy industrial applications.