A voltage stabilizer is a device planned to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It is also known as an automatic voltage regulator. It is an electrical device which is used to provide a stable voltage output to a load at its output terminals irrespective of any variations in the input i.e. incoming supply. The basic purpose of a Voltage Stabilizer is to protect the heavy goods, which consume heavy electricity (for example – air conditioning unit, refrigerator, TV, etc.) from the possible damage due to voltage flow, access voltage and low/under voltage problems.
There are different types of voltage stabilizers available in market. Both analog and digital automatic voltage stabilizers find their use in offices or at home. Voltage stabilizers are of single phase which provides us with the output of 220-230 volts or three phases which provide with the output of 380/400 volts. The regulation of desired stabilized output is done by buck and boost method (A switch-mode voltage regulator in which output voltage can be above or below the input voltage) as performed by its internal circuit. Three phase voltage stabilizers are available in two different models i.e. balanced load models and unbalanced load models.
Voltage stabilizers are available in different kilovolt ampere (kVA) rating and range too. A normal range stabilizer can ensure a constant output voltage of 200-240 volts with 20-35 volts boost-buck from an input voltage feed ranging from 180-270 volts. A wide range voltage stabilizer can ensure a stabilized out voltage of 190-240 volts with a 50-55 volts boost buck from an input voltage ranging from 140-300 volts.
They are used for a wide variety of applications such as dedicated voltage stabilizer for small units like TV, refrigerator, and microwaves etc. to a single big unit for all house hold appliances. Additionally, to its basic stabilizing function, existing voltage stabilizers come with many useful additional features such as overload protection, zero voltage switching, frequency difference protection, output start and stop facility, manual/ auto start, voltage cutoff, etc. They are high energy efficient devices (approximately with productivity of 95-98%). They ingest very less power which is generally 3 to 5% of the maximum load.
Why Voltage Stabilizers Are Needed?
Usually, most of the electrical equipment or devices are designed for a vast range of input voltage. Subject to the sensitivity, the working variety of the equipment are limited to a certain value, for example, some equipment can stand ± 10 percent of the rated voltage while others can only stand ± 5 percent or less. The current instability is quite common in many parts, particularly at ended lines.
Problems faced due to voltage malfunction/instability:
– Overheating– Due to voltage over-supply, the device might suffer from overheating and that can gradually lead up to malfunction in that device.
– Equipment failure– If there is a massive fluctuation in voltage, the device might not be able to take up its load and hence the device can be damaged or could face serious problems.
– Reduced performance– Over supply of voltage tends to reduce the performance of the device by making it slow in operations.
– Low efficiency– Some devices provided with less amount of voltage supply might not be able to perform up to their capacity.
– Permanent damage– Over supply or even under supply might damage the device as that appliance is not being provided with the correct amount of voltage which it requires.
So the voltage constancy and correctness decide the correct operation of the equipment. Voltage stabilizers, therefore, ensure that the voltage fluctuations at the incoming power supply do not affect the load or electrical appliance. Protected, filtered and stable power supply is very important for an electrical device to function. A correct and stabilized voltage supply is necessary for the device to perform its planned function in a much better way. Voltage stabilizers make sure that the devices get the desired and stabilized voltage no matter how much the instability in voltage is. Therefore, voltage stabilizer is a problem solver for anyone who desires to get the best performance and protects their devices against these irregular voltage fluctuations and other disturbances present in the supply. Voltage stabilizer plays an important part in protecting electronic equipment. Now a day, voltage fluctuation is very common problem. There are various causes for voltage flux, for instance, electrical faults, bad wiring, lightning, short circuits, etc. These fluctuations are also in the form of over voltage or under voltage.
Voltage stabilizers can be categorized into three main types:
• Relay Type Voltage Stabilizers
• Servo-based Voltage Stabilizers
• Static Voltage Stabilizers
These are the some of the essential steps which you must follow for selecting the best voltage rectifier for your home:
• Always check the power of the device, you want a stabilizer for and then accordingly, buy the voltage stabilizer with similar power. Power is usually in kVA form and it is written on the back side of the device with other information.
• Always keep a plus margin of 20-25% while selecting the stabilizer as it provides with an extra option of adding another device, later in future.
• Always check the current instability limit. If it suits your requirement, you can go with it.
• Always keep in mind about the size of the mounting brackets and other requirements.
• First do your own research regarding your own requirements for voltage stabilizer and then ask for an expert’s help or guidance.